In theoretical terms Reality Therapy is an evolutionary –systemic approach to people with psychological problems and mental health issues. (Leon Lojk 1937 – 2014)
In practical terms it is the application of Choice Theory in psychotherapy/ counselling with aim of improving mental health.
Reality therapy is an approach through which the therapist helps the client recognise, understand and change their own behaviour based on the idea that they control their own life. The therapist’s approach is based on understanding that a person is a free and responsible being who is internally motivated and whose behaviour is always purposeful. The author of reality therapy called this approach choice theory.
The therapist shares their understanding of human behaviour with the client, which allows the latter to change their view of themselves as a victim of unfavourable circumstances into that of a free being who makes decisions about themselves, regardless of the circumstances. A client’s understanding of their own behaviour as a response to what happened in the past or what is currently happening around them prevents them from developing affiliation with people who are important to them. Their relationships are therefore deficient or they are lonely. They thus suffer and develop various symptomatic behaviours that cause then further harm.
The new view of themselves that the client develops in the therapeutic process allows them to better harmonise and connect with others and establish internal balance in all areas of their life. The therapist’s task is to offer the client a different understanding of human behaviour and thus the opportunity to evaluate their current behaviour and establish themselves in realistic frameworks.
The main goal of Reality Therapy is to assist the client to replace traditional (ECP) beliefs with CT beliefs so that they may have healthy life-enhancing relationships. (William Glasser 1925 – 2013)
Choice theory is the understanding of human behaviour in the context of second-order cybernetics, which proves that living beings are self-directed systems that function purposefully. It defines a person as a free and responsible being who is intrinsically motivated and whose behaviour is always purposeful, very diverse and flexible. The purpose of behaviour is to follow internal motives and thus establish and maintain internal balance and balance with the environment. The idea of intrinsic motivation, integrity and the purposefulness of behaviour defines a person as a closed-loop system that functions according to the principle of intentional, circular causality.